Language – Language Framework

Hello! The first part of my English Language notes is very simple – however, please keep in mind that a glossary holds a lot of missing information, which is not yet complete. However, I will add my Incomplete Glossary As Thus Far at the bottom, so please add this to your notes as well as the main body of work. Also, the first part is Paper 1. Enjoy!

Paper 1

Two texts are given, linked either by topic or theme. Three questions are then asked about them. All knowledge needed is below, but Paper 2 knowledge is also needed for this paper.

Section A.1: Analysis of text 1. (25 marks)

Section A.2: Analysis of text 2. (25 marks)

Section A.3: Comparison of text 1 and 2. Different points are needed but some repetition of information from Section A and B is allowed. (20 marks)

(A2 only) Section B: Statement on Child Development. Choice of question. (30 marks)

Language Framework

Aim to analyse all texts in similar ways. When analysing a piece of language or discourse, you should consider these things:

  • Genre – what kind of language is it? Writing discourses could be instruction booklets or adverts, and spoken discourses could be formal speeches to an audience or a casual conversation between friends.
  • Register – a type of language that’s appropriate for a particular audience or situation, e.g. the language of a political party or the language of the justice system. Register also includes the level of formality. Formality has been defined by Martin Joos. The level of Joos are: Frozen Level, Consultative Level, Casual Level and Intimate Level.
  • Audience – the listener or reader. When you’re analysing language, think about how the audience is addressed. It might be formal or informal, direct or indirect. For example, in advertising the audience is being addressed as ‘you’.
  • Purpose – what the speaker or writer is trying to achieve through language (e.g. to persuade, instruct, etc.)
  • Subject – what the discourse is about. This will be reflected in the lexical choices, e.g. a discussion about healthy eating may contain words like ‘healthy-eating’ and ‘nutrition’.
  • Mode – whether the language is written or spoken. You can also get mixed modes – e.g. in text messages where the language is written, but contains many of the informal features of spoken language.

Discourse has a structure

  1. In written discourse, look at how text is put together. It may have an opening section which leads the reader into the text. The following sections may develop a theme or argument. The final section may make some kind of conclusion.
  2. In spoken discourse, the structure can be less organised. For example, conversations are often unpredictable and speakers often digress. This is because conversations are usually spontaneous.
  3. Even spontaneous conversations have some structure, such as there’s an opening sequence (“hi, how you doing?”) and a closing sequence (“well, nice seeing you”).
  4. You can also look at how the discourse fits together – cohesion. There are two types of cohesion – lexical and grammatical. One example of grammatical cohesion is using had verbs like furthermore and similarly had a beginning of a sentence or paragraph to link it to the previous one. Lexical coherence is when the words in the discourse relate to each other throughout.
  5. Synthetic personification is where discourse pretends to be face-to-face, and this is used across the radio, television and in print.


  • Personal pronouns – I, me, you. There are
  • Subject pronouns – I, you, he, they
  • Object pronouns – me, you, her, it
  • Possessive pronouns – mine, yours, theirs, ours, has, his, its.

Determiners and quantifiers

Determiners – either specific or overview/general. A specific determiner suggests that the listener understands exactly what you are referring too:

  • Definite – the
  • Possessive – my, your, his, her
  • Demonstrative – this, that, these, those
  • Interrogative – which

Quantifiers – We use quantifiers when we want to give someone information about the number of something: how much or how many.

Possessive Nouns

  • A noun with ’s with is a singular noun to show possession (we are having a party at John’s house).
  • s’ with a plural noun ending (his is my parents’ house) refers to more than one.

Possessive Adjectives

We use possessive adjectives:

  • To show something belongs to somebody (that’s our house).
  • For relations and friends (my mother is a doctor).
  • For parts of the body (he’s broken his arm).

Possessive Pronouns

We can use possessive pronouns after of.

We can say: “Susan is one of my friends,” or “Susan is a friend of mine,” but not “Susan is a friend of me.”

Reciprocal Pronouns

We use the reciprocal pronouns each other and one another when two or more people do the same thing. Traditionally, each other refers to two people and one another refers to more than two people, but this distinction is disappearing in modern English.

  • Peter and Mary helped one another = Peter helped Mary and Mary helped Peter.
  • We sent each other Christmas cards = we sent them a Christmas card and they sent us a Christmas card.


We use adverbs to give more information about the verb. ‘Adverbial’ refers to adverbs, can be put with intensifiers with a preposition.

We use adverbials of manner to say how something happens or how something is done: The children were playing happily.

We use adverbials of place to say where something happens: I saw him there.

We use adverbials of time to say when or how often something happens: They start work at six thirty.

We use adverbials of probability to show how certain we are about something: Perhaps the weather will be fine.

Clause, phrase and sentences

The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

  • [An unlucky student almost lost a 17th-century violin worth almost £200,000]
  • [when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

  • [An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]
  • [when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

  • An unlucky student almost lost a 17th-century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.
  • William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.

Incomplete Glossary As of Thus Far

Adjectives Word to describe the noun
Adverbs A word or phrase that modified the meaning of other words
Anecdotes a short amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person.
Audience address Relates to the way a writer or a speaker addresses the people they are writing for or speaking to
Audience positioning The assumptions made in a text about its reader’s background knowledge and understanding, attitudes and values in order to guide them towards an interpretation
Communicative Competence Refers to a language user’s grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately
Discourse Written or spoken communication
Discourse marker Words, phrases or clauses that help to organise what we say or write e.g. “as I was saying”
Fricative sounds Where letters create friction in the mouth when being said, such as the z in zebra.
Grammatical patterning Where the same or a similar grammatical structure is used two or three times, or even more
Holophrastic Stage Where a child knows just one word which they use in pace of a full sentence
Intensifiers We use these to make them sound stronger. They are strong adjectives
Lexis Words in a group
Metaphors Metaphors are comparisons that don’t used the word ‘like’ or ‘as’. They describe something as if they were something else. Because the comparisons are explicit, they are more powerful than a simile. An extended metaphor is when the same metaphor is continued throughout a text to create a chain of images.
Metonymy The use of a part of something to describe a whole thing.
Mitigators Mitigators are the opposite of intensifiers. We use these to make an adjective less strong
Nouns Proper = Name of something without a capital. Concrete = things you can, see, touch, smell or hear. Abstract = ideas, concepts or feelings. Collective = groups of people or things.
Oxymoron An oxymoron brings together two conflicting ideas (‘bittersweet’). The separate meanings of both ideas are combined to create a new one, and to grab the reader’s attention.
Personification Personification is a type of metaphor, where an object or situation is given human qualities.
Phoneme/phonetics The sound of words
Phonology Interpretation of speech
Plosive sounds The basic plosives in English are t, k, and p (silent) and d, g, and b
Pronouns Takes the place of a noun (e.g. I)
Proper nouns Name of something with a capital
Proto words Made up words that a child will use to represent a word they might not yet be able to pronounce
Reduplication When a word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
Semantics Meaning of words/context
Similes Similes are comparisons that use the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. The comparison is always stated explicitly.
Subtext The underlying or implied meaning of a text
Syntax The arrangement of words to create a sentence
Tag question A short question used at the end of a sentence, often inviting agreement with the speaker
Verbs Action words. Modal verbs = have meanings connected with degrees of certainty and necessity. Semi-modal verbs = have some meaning related to the man modal verb.

Yay! That is the next instalment of my notes, like I said, the glossary is incomplete as I’m only one year into the course, but I’ll update it from time to time. Also, I’d make the tables green as I’m highlighting in green, sorry if that changes though as I might forget haha. Please comment anything you feel is relevant and thank you for the support I have been getting, it really does inspire me. See ya soon!

Image result for funny penguins


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